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Sącz Lachs

Sącz Lachs

The Festive and Everyday Attire of the Sącz Lachs

The most spectacular manifestation of the traditional culture of the Sącz Lachs was peasants festive costume, regarded by many researchers as one of the most beautiful costumes in Poland. It came to express the transitional character of the Lach culture, which arose from the interface of the Cracow groups and the Carpathian Highlanders. It was not uniform throughout the Sącz Basin. Its most ornamental variant emerged among the rich peasants living in the southwestern, left-bank part of the Dunajec river valley, in the villages of the Podegrodzie parish, referred to as Podegrodzie Lachs. The most advanced form of the festive Podegrodzie outfit appeared in the second half of the 19th century, when the enfranchised peasants began growing rich, and a costly outfit became a display of wealth and a sign of affiliation with one’s own group. Around the 1870s-1880s, a crystallized, distinctive and recognisable style of the ornamentation of the Podegrodzie outfit appeared. As it spread to the neighbouring Sącz Lach subregions, as well as adjacent areas, in time it came to be regarded as a representative outfit of the whole group, and even – the whole of the Sącz district.

In times of the so-called traditional folk culture, it was particularly the festive outfit that was an important cultural sign performing specific social functions: apart from the identification with the peasantry and own ethnographic group, it indicated the wearer’s financial, social and marital status. It used to be subject to strict control by fellow countrymen, who saw to it that the social norms concerned with the outfit were observed.
 

Men’s festive attire

Men’s festive attire worn by Sącz Lach men living in the centre of the region (Podegrodzie Lachs) was extremely beautiful and brilliantly embellished. The main element of its festive variety was a navy, cloth kaftan (a tunic) with sleeves, lined with red cloth. Its cut differed from the one of the Cracow kaftany(plural of kaftan). Round the middle, a narrow back section was connected with the front sections with two arched seams on the back. The bottom part, spódnica, cut off at the waist, had two, long, loose flaps (the so-called łachy), which made it easier to ride a horse. The embellishment of the Podegrodzie-style kaftan was unusually rich. On the chest (from the standing collar to the waist) and around the middle, a series of convex, brass buttons were sewn on, and intertwined with red, yellow and green, silk chwościki (tassels). The kaftan edges were trimmed with red cloth, or strips of red appliqués (at the front of the spódnica, along the slit, at the bottom of the sleeves and the pocket flaps). Along the bottom edge and on the standing collar ran yellow, red, green and white, silk or cotton thread chain stitch with geometrical and floral motifs. On the kaftan front parts and łachy, in the corners, characteristic, stylised bukiety (bunches) of flowers were embroidered. This embroidery (approximately from the third quarter of the 19th century) gained a recognisable style, and the ornamental elements (wisełkatopolkikostkiogóreckirapkipazdurkigwiozdkikwiotkigałązki, etc.) came to be replicated on other parts of men’s costume worn by the Sącz Lachs: cloth trousers called błokicie, waistcoats, gurmana jackets, trousers called płótnianki, as well as on women’s bodices, katanki (tunics), zapaski(aprons), etc.

Kaftany used to be worn mainly by single men on major festive occasions, such as their own weddings or when they acted as best men, as well as on religious and community holidays, and - once the national independence had been regained - also on public holidays. In time, also rich, married farmsteaders would more and more often wear them.

The kaftan was complemented by błokicie (trousers) made of navy, factory-made cloth. They had an individual cut too: at the front they had two przypory (slits; just like on the highland trousers), between which there was a flap called laco; the legs were straight and quite wide, with outside seams extending up to the upper edge of the trousers. The upper edge, turned down and sewn through, formed a trimming through which threaded was a tie cord. The slits of the błokicie were trimmed with red cloth and richly embellished with multicoloured handmade embroidery (with a recurrent motif of kula - a bent stick), finished at the bottom with a spectacular sercówka (a heart-shaped pattern) resembling a highland-style parzenica. (Very similar sercówka patterns were worn on white, cloth gunioki in highland villages bordering on the Sącz Lach region, as well as in the Podegrodzie region itself - more on this below). On the sides, the błokicie legs were decorated with red, wide, cloth stripes, with coloured borders featuring motifs similar to the ones on kaftany. The type of embroidery used was mainly chain stitch, on sercówka patterns - also janina cross stitch, enriched with spangles and beads. The ends of the błokicie legs were always tucked into the boot uppers (and that is why they were not embroidered).

The kaftan and the błokicie trousers were complemented by a white, lana shirt (of thin homemade linen) with an oblong poncho or przyramkowy (made of square pieces of fabric) cut; the shirt was of moderate length, and as such was always tucked in the trousers. The turndown collar, the cuffs and the shirt bosom used to be decorated with dainty, dense, usually red, seldom white (e.g. for wedding) handmade broderie anglaise (the stitches used included: buttonhole around the holes, stem stitch, flatlock and drawn thread work), with floral and geometrical motifs. As from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, under the chin the shirt was most often fastened with a semi-circular ciosek – a decorative element made of stiffened, silk ribbon - usually red or green, adorned with embroidery, spangles and tassels along the edge. It was an ornament characteristic of this subregion only. Next to the collar, well-off men used to tie a silk, flowery, Cracow-style ribbon into a broad bow; in all probability ciosek is derived from it.

The shirts and błokicie complementing the kaftan used to be girded around with an elegant, broad, leather belt. Until the end of the 19th century, it was either a rectangular pas staroświecki (an old-fashioned belt, called syrokiopasek) of the highland style, or a narrower sros (trzos) - borrowed from the Cracow tradition. Long enough for one wrap, both were made of double yuft leather. The former one, which was broader (approx. 18cm), was sewn with a little leather strap, fastened with four thongs and circular buckles. The upper part had a pocket opening covered with a rounded flap. It was decorated with embossed patterns, brass buttons, rings and little nails. The sros belt, slightly narrower (approx. 12cm) had pointed ends (w szpic), was fastened with one leather strap and two buckles, and the pocket opening was at the front, next to the fastening. At the front, sros belts were richly embellished with buttons, caps and wire openwork. From the beginning of the 20th century, under the influence of the expansion of the Podhale costume, the Podegrodzie Lachs began wearing very wide highland-style belts, which reached mid-bosom, were richly decorated with embossment and brass ferrules, fastened with 6-7 buckles. They soon became an indispensable element of the wedding attire (worn by the groom and best men) in the Podegrodzie parish.

The festive costume used to be complemented by single and young men with a small, black lachoski hat of the brusek type; it had a hard, cupolaed dome with a narrow, slightly turned-up brim. The bottom part of the dome was wrapped around with (red or black) twisted cord, behind which stuck were sometimes long rooster feathers. Do druzbacki (while performing the best man's duties), the best man had to decorate the hat with a broader, red ribbon and a triple-forked bunch or wreath of artificial flowers adorned with szych [metal thread], feathers, spangles, etc. For major festive occasions (e.g. own wedding, performing a best man’s duties or horseback riding with an entourage of a newly-ordained priest) single men would also wear red (or brown) cloth rogatywki(four-cornered caps) with an embroidered or fur rim, embellished with peacock feathers and a bunch.Later on, worn were also felt, urban-style hats with soft, indented domes and broader, turn-down brims. An indispensable complement to the Sącz Lach festive costume were karbiaki - Polish-style, calf-length boots with one seam running on the back side of the hard upper; the area above the ankle, called harmonijka (karby), was meticulously corrugated.The uppers were richly decorated with borders of embossed patterns, and the counters were studded with decorative tacks (ćwieczki). The Cuban heels were nailed with little iron horseshoes.

In summer, on Sundays and holidays, all over the region, men would commonly wear knee-length linen shirts outside the trousers (na wypust); the ones worn by rich farmsteaders were decorated with white or red handmade embroidery (Podegrodzie Lachs). They were girded around with an ornamental sros or a three-wrap long, narrow kawalyrski (bachelor-style) belt decorated with brass buttons and caps arranged in ośminy (a border of eight-shaped patterns), with the last wrap hanging loosely over the hips. Long shirts were complemented by white, linen trousers (płócionki) with straight, wide legs tucked into the boot uppers. Płócionki used to have an asymmetrical slit on the left-hand side; from the beginning of the 20th century they were already made according to the urban fashion, with a fly centrally placed and fastened with a button. The leg bottoms used to be decorated with cyrka zo strząpkami, that is hemstitch and short tassels of the warp threads tied in bunches.

Rich men would complement the summer, linen outfit with festive Lach-style waistcoats (worn over shirts) made of navy cloth, with a standing collar, two slash pockets and a row of semi-circular, tin buttons at the front, which originally served as a fastening, but later on were only decorative; the edges were trimmed with red cloth. In the Podegrodzie subregion, waistcoats were richly decorated with multicoloured handmade chain stitch with Podegrodzie-style motifs, among which the most beautiful one was the symmetrical bukiet (a bunch) placed at the back, above the triangular slit, in the middle of the bottom edge. As a summer garment worn were commonly white jackets called górnice (płótnianki) made of homespun linen over a thicker lining. They had an oblong poncho cut with flared gussets at the hips, reached down below the knees; the sleeves were long, a small standing collar, and at the sides - two oblique slash pockets. Along the front slit and on the standing collar, they were lined with red or blue (in the western part of the region) cloth; alternatively, the cloth was used to trim the edges. On holidays, rich men would wear płótnianki decorated with multicoloured woollen chain stitch embroidery with Podegrodzie-style motifs. Above all, it was placed on the chest, but also on the standing collar, in the bottom sections of the sleeves and around the pockets. Dla parady (for festive occasions), płótnianki often used to be girded around with a decorative belt called sros. The festive costume worn in summer used to be complemented with lachoskie straw or felt hats. The richest farmsteaders would wear elegant karbioki (boots).Poor men would commonly wear leather, highland-style kierpce, which in summer were worn over linen footwraps.

In colder seasons of the year, as well as on major festive occasions, Lach farmsteaders would wear homespun cloth gurmany (overcoats), which originally were most often white, and later on corne (dark brown), had an oblong poncho cut, flared from the hips with the aid of gussets, reaching down below the knees. They closely resembled the gurmany worn by the Sącz Highlanders, but were more ornately decorated. Borders of multicoloured, woollen chain stitch with floral and geometrical patterns ran along the front slit (most widely on the chest), as well as along the bottom edge, around the pocket openings, at the sleeve ends and on the standing collar. In general, gurmany used to complement navy błokicie (trousers), and in winter, especially in the south of the region, also the white gunioki, that is highland-style trousers, with two przypory (slits) decorated with a sercówka (a heart-shaped pattern).In winter, the wealthiest peasants used to wear – on festive occasions – the famous, Stary Sącz-type, Hungarian-style sheepskins; they were white, long, richly pleated at the back, with a loose-fitting, semi-circular collar made of black sheep fur, and black oprymy (trimmings). They were meticulously decorated with appliqués of red and green saffian leather, as well as coloured embroidery with floral motifs. Besides, long, yellow (dyed light brown) sheepskins were worn; they were slightly flared from the waist down and trimmed with black fur at the edges. Sheepskins used to be complemented with dark-blue or black, cloth caps made of four gores, lined with fur, with fur flaps lowered to cover the ears in severely freezing weather. Later on (as of the beginning of the 20th century), black fur, stack-shaped caps became widespread. Woollen mittens, which were hand-woven on a board, were worn as well. Rich peasants used to complement festive their winter costume with ornamental boots called karbioki; less wealthy farmsteaders would wear cheaper węgierskie (Hungarian-style) boots (with two seams on the sides of the uppers), and the poorest - kierpce worn over cloth footwraps.
 

Women’s festive attire

A young girl's, traditional Podegrodzie Lach costume had characteristic, dark (black, navy, more seldom claret), velvet (most often) bodices with oval necklines and small, semicircular, slightly overlapping flaps. At the back there were two arched seams called podkulki. The front edges were stiffened with steel rods and fastened with hooks and eyes. As early as the mid-19th century, bodices were embroidered with beads in subdued colours. Ornamental borders with Podegrodzie-style motifs ran along the neckline, shoulder straps, front edges, podkulki, and in time also the flaps. At the front, on either side of the slit, and at the back, there were the style-specific bunches, symmetrically arranged, with wavy or zigzag twigs and circular, radial and tulip-shaped flowers. Embroidery was enriched with spangles. In the first half of the 20th century, ornamental elements became more and more lavish, dense and colourful. Bodices were worn over white, linen blouses with an oblong poncho or przyramkowy cut, or short ones with a thick strip of linen called nadołek attached below the waist, which performed the function of underwear (knickers came into use as late as the turn of the 1920s and 1930s). Older blouses had rounded or rectangular turndown collars and straight cuffs. As from the beginning of the 20th century, quite narrow ruffles became widespread. Women’s blouses - at the front, on the collar, the cuffs and przyramki - were decorated with red or white, dense embroidery with floral (twigs, flowers) and geometrical (ośminki, teardrops, hearts, little suns) motifs. For festive occasions, in the Podegrodzie district, young women would wear, under the blouse collar, a semicircular, decorative ciosek similar to the male counterpart. Traditional festive skirts were almost ankle-length, very wide, richly tucked and close-fitting around the waist. They were worn several at a time to visually broaden the figure, and in winter - to feel warmer. The oldest types of festive skirts, called fartuchy, were white, made of thin, homespun linen and decorated with a wide strip of white broderie anglaise and zęby (serration) along the bottom edge. Once they went out of fashion (as from the beginning of the 20th century), they began to be worn underneath, as petticoats. The formal outfit - as well as Sunday outfit in the case of less affluent women - was complemented with dark (navy, indigo) farbówki (skirts) made of homespun linens; they were hand-dyed and imprinted with dainty, light-coloured patterns. In time, widespread became pattern-imprinted skirts of factory-made percales, the most popular ones with the Sącz Lachs being the so-called różowiaki in the pink-white-cherry colour scheme, at the bottom trimmed with a wavy, black-cord border arranged in oak leaves, ośminy or topolki(little loops). Single women from wealthy families also had expensive skirts of light-coloured batiste, muslin and organdy imprinted with dainty bunches of flowers. They were decorated with tucks and narrow ribbons. Girls would fling over their shoulders light-coloured, patterned shawls of thin woollen fabric imprinted with flowers. Unmarried women would also wear flowery headscarves, but they were not obliged to cover their heads. They would wear their hair with a central parting or (later) slicked back, in one or two plaits. The plaits were entwined with plain (often red, but also white pink or blue) silk ribbons or colourful haberdashery binding. Rich peasants’ daughters used to entwine their hair with expensive, flowery wstążki krakowskie (Cracow-style ribbons). Young girls liked entwining their hair with fresh wild or garden flowers. They used to wear kierpce, and as of the beginning of the 20th century, black, lace-up boots with Cuban heels were becoming more and more popular.

Over linen blouses, wealthy, married women used to wear quite loose, cloth or velvet wizytki (cropped jackets) with sleeves and buttons; they were richly embellished with appliqués and beaded embroidery featuring szlaczki podegrodzkie (Podegrodzie-style borders). Around the neck the blouse had a white, embroidered, turndown collar. On very special occasions, the richest housewives would wear a very elegant, navy or dark-green, richly embellished cloth kaftan z organkami (folds densely gathered and stiffened at the hips) and an ample, cape-like collar. In winter, padded katany (cropped jackets) of black cloth served as festive garments; they were trimmed with black fur, fastened with cord loops and “silver” buttons, as well as spectacularly decorated with white-silver bead embroidery. On festive occasions, just like single women, married housewives used to wear old-fashioned, white skirts called fartuchy with lavish, whitework embroidery, and in time - skirts made of patterned percales or (amaranthine, turquoise, green) plain coarse woollen fabrics. Typically, several of these were worn at a time, to visually broaden the figure and feel warmer. White, loose zapaski (aprons) of thin linen with white broderie anglaise, or patterned ones of woollen fabric in intense colours, embellished with embroidery, lace or borders of black cord were put on top of the skirts. Brown karbioki, similar to the ones worn by men, were richest housewives’ festive footwear. Poor women used to wear cheaper, węgierskie (Hungarian-style) boots or kierpce.

For festive occasions married women used to fling over their shoulders long, white, wrap-like linen sheets – the so-called rańtuchy, which from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries began to be superseded by various factory-made chusty naramienne (shoulder shawls). Married women were obliged to wear headscarves made of linen, sateen, wool or percale, and tied under the chin. For major festive occasions, a white, linen mob-cap headscarf was worn; it was decorated with red, floral, chain stitch embroidery and the archaic motif of drzewko życia (a tree of life). It was tied into a mob cap, with the embroidered corner trailing down the back and a large knot over the forehead. In Podegrodzie, as late as the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, mob caps made of cloth of gold were worn too; the richest housewives would buy them from Stary Sącz townswomen. Mob caps were a kind of close-fitting caps with a rounded flap over the forehead; around the face they were decorated with a densely pleated tulle flounce, and over the nape - silk bows.

The most precious ornament of the outfit, worn by both unmarried and married women, were red or pink, genuine coral beads, which - because of their high price, used to be worn on short strings tightly wrapped the neck over the blouse collar. The bottom string was slightly longer; on it, richer girls and women would wear silver or silver-plated, ornately carved crosses or “holy” medallions (consecrated and brought from church fairs or pilgrimages to famous sanctuaries).
 

The attire of the Sącz Lachs in the other subregions

Apart from the Podegrodzie Lach district, only inhabitants of a group of villages perched along the Dunajec river, to the north of Nowy Sącz and as far as Tęgoborze and Łososina Dolna, dressed ornately, but somewhat differently. Shirts were embroidered in the same technique and equally lavishly, but with white thread. Cioski (semi-circular, decorative elements of stiffened, silk ribbon worn under the chin) were rarely worn, as they were a late borrowing from Podegrodziaki (Podegrodzie inhabitants), while earlier on rich farmstead owners would occasionally fasten their shirt collars with pakfong or even silver clasps with circular discs and coral or glass stones, just like in the Cracow regions. With the ornamentation following the same rules as the ones observed by the Podegrodzie Lachs, kaftany (tunics) and błokicie (trousers) had daintier and more modest embroideries (less elaborate borders), but also developed for paradne (formal) occasions. Gurmany were slightly shorter, but the embroideries on the chest were very wide. The outfits worn by women from rich families used to be very lavish, made of expensive, shop fabrics: brocades with gold thread, sateen, damask and silk. Until the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, just like Podegrodzie women, the richest housewives would complement their festive costume with mob caps of cloth of gold, borrowed from the bourgeois culture (from Nowy Sącz). White, linen or tulle mob caps were decorated with whitework. They were tied in the same fashion as in the Podegrodzie district.

In the north of the region, as far as Wojakowa, Iwkowa and Wytrzyszczka, in the borderland with the Krakowiaks, men's costume more and more often included white, cylindrical, flat-top, woollen caps called magierki of the Cracow type (knitted and felted) as well as płótnianki with black lining on the standing collar and the sleeve flaps, just like in the Tarnów district. Also in this area, worn were navy blue, cloth waistcoats of the same cut as in the central part of the Sącz Lach region, but they were only decorated with red trimming and brass buttons, and sometimes - a modest wisełka embroidered on the standing collar. The only ornamentation of the navy blue, cloth trousers of the błokicie type was the red border around the slits (without sercówka) and quite broad, red side stripes along the leg seams. According to Seweryn Udziela’s materials, in the northwestern reach of the Sącz Lach region (the environs of Iwkowa) it was not uncommon to come across kaftany without sleeves (probably of the Cracow type), modestly decorated along the slit with brass buttons and red edgings. Girls used to wear white, linen, whitework skirts called fartuchy, and later on muslin, batiste and percale skirts imprinted with floral patterns (also różowiaki). Black or navy, velvet bodices with dainty tacki (flaps) were often only edged with shop haberdashery items. There were also more ornately embroidered bodices of the Podegrodzie type, which were commissioned in the region or finished after the Podegrodzie fashion (e.g. for wedding). Wealthy women would more often wear monochromatic, ostre (coarse), woollen skirts in vivid colours, and white, linen zapaski decorated with gussets of machine-made lace. On major holidays, they would also wear white skirts (fartuchy) with whitework, as well as white, tulle or linen mob caps decorated with whitework, tied in the same manner as in the central part of the region. Over (whitework) blouses they would wear loose-fitting, woollen wizytki (cropped jackets) decorated with appliqués of black velvet, or close-fitting katanki (cropped jackets with sleeves) decorated with haberdashery binding, and in the winter version - padded and trimmed with artificial fur (baranek). As an outer garment (przyodziewek) white, linen sheets called rańtuchy used to be worn; as of the first half of the 20th century, machine-made shoulder shawls were becoming more and more common, just like in the other Sącz Lach subregions.

In the eastern part of the region, in the villages located on the right bank of the Dunajec river (as far as Podole-Górowa, Miłkowa, Jasienna, Siedlce, Mogilno), the Sącz Lach festive costumes were much more modest as well. Men’s costume was mainly decorated with red cloth edging (trousers, waistcoats), and sometimes - modest chain stitch. Kaftany (tunics), with their preserved form, had - on the chest and around the waist - rows of buttons (often without chwosty - tassels), red edgings, and sometimes - modest, narrowly embroidered borders along the slit from the waist down and on the collar. In the south-eastern part reach of the Sącz Lach region (in the borderland with the Poprad Highlanders), men’s costume would more often include, instead of waistcoats, sheepskin sleeveless serdaki (jerkins) with black oprymy (trimmings), decorated with modest woollen embroidery or appliqués of colourful leather pieces. In winter, white, cloth gunioki (trousers) were commonly worn; their cut... cords around the przypory (slits) and along the leg seams. Gurmany were more modestly decorated as well. Kierpce used to be the footwear commonly worn by both men and women. Apart from the ancient white fartuchy (skirts) decorated with white broderie anglaise, and zęby (serration) along the bottom edge, women’s festive costume would much longer include navy or dark blue farbówki with dainty, imprinted white patterns (worn as formal or Sunday dress). At the beginning of the 20th century, rich peasants living on the outskirts of the region, and identifying with the Lachs, would often commission tailors from the Podegrodzie district to make ornate Podegrodzie-style outfits (e.g. to be worn at wedding ceremonies by their children).

Just like in the other Subcarpathian regions, the casual clothing worn by the Sącz Lachs preserved the archaic forms of ancient peasant clothes. Until the beginning of the 20th century, they were handmade by women of homemade linen and hemp fabrics as well as homespun cloth. On a daily basis, old and worn-out parts of the festive costume were commonly worn. In summer, men would wear long, greyish, linen or hemp shirts with narrow trimmings around the neck. They were tied na byle skrowek (with any old scrap of cloth), and girded around at the waist with twine or an ordinary, narrow belt. Shirts were worn na wypust (outside) coarse płócionki (trousers) with straight, wide legs. On cold days, over the shirt worn was an unadorned waistcoat of dark, worse-quality kramne (bought at a fair stall) cloth, with a row of tin buttons. From the beginning of the 20th century, they were more and more often replaced with urban-style waistcoats with a V-neck, fastened with bone buttons. All year round, old farmsteaders would readily wear homemade, unadorned sheepskin serdaki(jerkins). In summer, white płótnianki (górnice) were worn on top; they looked the same as the festive ones, but were unadorned. Worn-out straw or felt hats were worn. Rich farmsteaders used to wear swijoki boots with long, soft uppers rolled up under the knees. Homemade kierpce used to be worn for work. In winter, over płócionki worn were white, cloth, unadorned gunioki of the highland cut, and as an outer garment worn was a shabby gurmana or a yellow popaśnik - a short sheepskin with sleeves. Old sheepskin caps were worn, as well as calf-length boots or kierpce over cloth cułki (footwraps). In summer, on a daily basis, women used to wear ordinary, unadorned, linen blouses with a nadołek, and long, pleated, linen (often unbleached) skirts; well-off women would also wear navy farbówki.Under the skirt, worn was at least one “worse-quality” skirt. The skirt was usually covered with an ample, linen or percale zapaska. Older women would wear linen, flannel or fustian, sleeveless stonicki, which were waist-length, had an oval neckline higher than the one on the bodice, and were fastened with buttons. On cold days, dark-coloured, close-fitting katanki (cropped jackets) with sleeves were worn; they were made of homespun linen - baja, flannel or fustian. White, linen, and later also percale, patterned kerchiefs were worn as headwear. In summer, women would typically walk barefoot; only the richest women would wear węgierskie (Hungarian-style) boots on a daily basis. In winter, women would wear more skirts (as many as five), under which, on the bottom there was a warm fustian barchetka. Over the blouse worn were thicker, dark-coloured and unadorned katanki. Thicker shawls were used to wrap up well; they were of worse-quality fabrics, e.g. brownish grey zajączówki or dark-coloured kraciaki.Woollen headscarves were worn. Kierpcewere worn over thick footwraps, and from the beginning of the 20th century - also over knitted, woollen socks. In winter, on a daily basis, well-off housewives would wear Hungarian-style calf-length boots.

 

Maria Brylak-Załuska

 

Bibliography: 

Maria Brylak-ZałuskaZarys kultury materialnej Lachów Podegrodzkich [An Outline of the Material Culture of the Podegrodzie Lachs], [in:] Podegrodzie i gmina podegrodzka, zarys dziejów [Podegrodzie and the Commune of Podegrodzie. An Outline History], a collective work, Feliks Kiryk (ed.), Podegrodzie 2014; Mieczysław CholewaStroje Ziemi Sądeckiej [The Costumes of the Sącz District], „Lud”, vol. XXXVI, Lublin 1946; Zdzisław Szewczyk, Maria Brylak-ZałuskaStrój Lachów Sądeckich [The Costume of the Sącz Lachs], Nowy Sącz 2008; Seweryn UdzielaKilka słów o strojach, budowlach, sprzętach i naczyniach w Sądecczyźnie [A Few Words About the Outfits, Buildings, Appliances and Dishes in the Sącz Region], „Lud”, vol. X, Kraków 1905.